In 1952, Beijing College of Geology was established by merging the Geology departments of Peking University, Tsinghua University, Tianjin University, and Tangshan Railway Institute.
The college was designated as one of the national key colleges and universities in 1960.
In 1970, the college moved to Hubei and changed its name to Hubei College of Geology.
In 1974, the college settled in Wuhan and was renamed Wuhan College of Geology.
In 1978, Wuhan College of Geology set up the Beijing graduate department at the site of Beijing College of Geology.
In 1987, the college adopted the current name - China University of Geosciences, and operated independently in Wuhan and Beijing, with headquarters in Wuhan.
In February 2000, the affiliation of the university was transferred from the Ministry of Land and Resources to the Ministry of Education.
In October 2006, the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Land and Resources entered a collaboration agreement on promoting CUG development.
In 2017, CUG has been selected into the national “Double First Class University Plan”.